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We cordially invite you to the old yet ever young Ukraine whose glorious history goes back 1,500 years. The capital of the country - Kiev - has been the capital of Kiev Rus for almost 300 years and played an important part in the history of Old Rus, former cradle of three fraternal nations - Russia, Ukraine and Belarussia. With a territory of over 600,000 sq. km and population of nearly 50 million, Ukraine is one of the largest "emerging markets" in Europe and in the world. The country also has huge intellectual and scientific potential, developed industries with a strong export orientation, unique agricultural riches and, most importantly, hard-working and highly educated people

Main Information about Ukraine:
UKRAINE OVERVIEW
Ukraine is one of the biggest European countries. It is located in Central - Eastern Europe, and occupies the area of 603.7 thousand square kilometers of southwest part of Eastern European Plato and part of Carpathians and Crimean mountains. The Black and Azov seas wash South borders of Ukraine. The population of Ukraine is nearly 50 million people. Its territory and population could compare Ukraine to France.

The neighbors of Ukraine are: Belarus, Russia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Poland and Slovakia. The geopolitical location of Ukraine bordering west and east nations and cultures has significantly influenced the historical and present development of the state.

Ukraine has developed a varied industry, concentrated mostly in and around big cities, such as Kiev, Zaporozhye, Dnepropetrovsk, Dnyeprodzerzhinsk, Odessa, Kharkov, Lviv, Nickolayev and other. It produces planes and ships, lorries and buses, motorcars and locomotives, computer and electronic equipment, precision instruments and agricultural machines, TV and radioset, chemicals and textiles and various consumer goods. Odessa, Sebastopol, Nickolayev, Kherson and Kerch are main ukrainian ports.

Kiev is the capital of Ukraine. The official language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. Ukrainian national currency is Hryvna (UAH).

POPULATION OF UKRAINE
Ukraine divided into 24 administrative oblasts, Autonomous Republic of Crimea and two cities of republican authorization - Kyiv and Sevastopol - in Ukraine.

Ukrainian people have always been native to Ukraine and lived on its territory for thousands of years. Ukrainians account for 73% of the total population of Ukraine (48,457,000 persons, 2001 census), and dominate in most regions of the country - with the exception of the autonomous Republic of Crimea. In certain areas, such as Volyn, Cherkasy, Poltava, Vinnytsia, Chernihiv and Ternopil, Ukrainians account for 90-96% of the total population. According to 2001 census, 37,541,700 Ukrainians and 4,830,000 people of Ukrainian origin live in Ukraine.

In terms of population, Ukraine ranks 5th in Europe (after Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France) and 21st in the world. Ukrainians are the second among Slavic people that belong to the East Slavonic subgroup of Indo-European ethno-linguistic family. Ukrainians represent a stable community and are hospitable, sincere and affable in nature.

The remaining population is made up of many minorities: Russian, Byelorussians, Moldovans, Poles, Armenians, Greeks, Bulgarians, and others. Ukrainian population is only 68% urban.

Forming the strategy for Ukraine's national consolidation, state authorities are permanently guided by the principle of poly-ethnic and poly-cultural status of the Ukrainian society, with national minorities as an inalienable part of this society. The state national policy ensures the public unity of Ukraine's population and creates a climate of the tolerance and intercultural dialogue, contributing to the society's integration and formation of a single Ukrainian nation.

Today there are an estimated 22,581,000 Ukrainians living outside of Ukraine. Among the nations with the high population of Ukrainians Russia (10,938,000) takes the first place. Substantial number of Ukrainians lives in the Former USSR countries and Eastern Europe. There are over 14,408,440 Ukrainians living in the Republics of the former Soviet Union and over 1,162,000 in Eastern Europe.

Substantial Ukrainian communities exist in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and many other countries.

HISTORY OF UKRAINE
Ukrainians are deeply affected by the country's long history that predates the independent state by some 1,500 years. The march of successive civilizations from prehistoric times, the Scythians, Greeks, Varaungian, Slavic, and Turkic peoples have all left their mark. The birthplace of the Slavic state was Kyivan-Rus which flourished a thousand years ago.

There is an old legend which tells of three brothers who found Kyiv (also known as Kiev) at the end of the fifth century. The brothers Kiy, Khoriv, and Shchek, along with their sister, Lybid, decided to name this newly founded land "Kyiv," after their elder brother.

Kyiv bloomed during the end of the ninth century as a political center inhabited by Eastern Slavs. Kyiv had an advantageous trade route in the center of Europe which allowed it to maintain political and economic ties with the West.

In 988, Kyiv's Prince Volodymyr the Great introduced Christianity to Kyiv making it the official religion of Kyivan-Rus. This move played an important role in Kyiv's political development and cultural relations with the European and Near Eastern countries.

In 1240, Kyiv was invaded by the Tatar-Mongols led by the grandson of Genghis Khan. The city was captured and its glory fell into decline during the period of almost century-long rule by the Tatar-Mongols.

For many centuries thereafter Ukraine was attacked and ruled by Poland and Lithuanian in the Rzecz Pospolita Commonwealth, Russia, Germany and others. During this time Ukrainian Kozack armies were formed which were led by a Hetman (military leader). One of the most famous Hetman is Bohdan Khmelnytsky who inspired one of the greatest Cossack uprisings that led to the liberation of Kyiv in 1648. He was considered by some a traitor after he signed the Treaty of Pereyaslav which authorized protection from the Russian Czar. This treaty joined Ukraine and Russia into one and led to a long period of domination by the Russian Empire and ultimately the Soviet Union.

After the revolution of 1917 Vladimir Illyich Lenin and his Bolshevik Party seized power and expanded their sphere of control into Ukraine.

Ukraine experienced a brief period of independence when on January 22, 1918, the Ukrainian Central Rada (Council) formally issued a proclamation for Ukraine's independence. But shortly thereafter in 1919, the Ukrainian National Republic was defeated in a war against Polish expansionists and overrun once again.

Eventually, Bolshevik and Communist forces retook Ukrainian lands, and as a means to control the population, leader Josef Stalin caused the Great Famine of 1932-33 by forcibly collecting grain and deliberately starving to death nearly ten million people. Nazi Germany then began World War II and entered Kyiv in September 1941 razing the city. In November 1943, Soviet forces retook the city in fierce fighting and began their final domination of Ukraine for almost the next fifty years.

After the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed Ukraine's sovereignty in July 1990, Ukrainians fulfilled their dream of independence during the failed Soviet coup of August 1991. In a referendum held on December 1, 1991 the people of Ukraine endorsed independence and voted Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk as Ukraine's first ever democratically elected President. The United States recognized Ukraine's independence on December 25, 1991; and the first American Ambassador, Roman Popadiuk, arrived in Kyiv on June 8, 1992.

CULTURE & ART OF UKRAINE

Literature

Ancient Ukrainian literature was sprung from sermons, legends, chronicles, and warrior epos in the days of the Kyiv State. "The Song of Igor's Campaign", written by an unknown author, is considered the most famous poetic work of the 12th century. This work is based on the historical story about the campaign of Igor, Prince of Novgorod-Siversky, his brother Vsevolod, son Volodymyr and nephew Sviatoslav against the polovtsians, his defeat and flight from captivity.

From the Middle Ages, the wonderful samples of folk-poetic works has appeared, which were in the form of historical ballads, songs, lyrics, genre poetry, and folk poetry. They reflect life and the manner of people, as well as historical events and activities of people. At present, the literature of the 16-17th centuries is especially attractive. It includes the works of the period of the national-liberation struggle and the struggle for renewal of Ukrainian statehood.

Ivan Kotliarevsky (1769-1831) is considered the first classic of new Ukrainian literature. In his works, "Aeneid" and "Natalka Poltavka", he truthfully showed the reality of those days and introduced new genres in literature, such as satire, adventure, and drama.

The new age of Ukrainian literature was opened by Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861), the most famous Ukrainian poet. His "Kobzar" (1840) became the event of unique significance. Shevchenko rose the Ukrainian literature on the level of the highest achievements of the world's artistic works.

In the 19th and 20th century there were a lot of Ukrainian writers and poets who became famous in Ukraine and abroad: Ivan Franko (1856-1916), Kotsiubynskyi (1864-1913), Lesia Ukrainka (1871-1913), Pavlo Tychyna (1891-1967), Maxym Rylskyi (1895-1964), and others.

Today, the literary activity in Ukraine is versatile and extensive and is in different stages simultaneously (e.g., Baroque, 19th century, 20th century styles). Many literary groups and associations are in creative searches. In 1992, a new modern group under the name, "New Generation" was formed. In 1995, the group "500" represented the anthology of prose under the name "Texts". In the course of several years, the association "New Literature", headed by V. Tsybulko, is also functioning. Also in the 1990s, a number of new magazines, newspapers, publishing houses have appeared. Not less than 100 books of prose are published each year. Thirty literary awards have been established for distinguishing the very best in the field. In 1996, 65 authors became laureates of such awards.

The Fine Arts

The Ukrainian people in the course of centuries-old history created distinctive, artistically unique national art in which their social and aesthetic ideals, patriotism and humanism were reflected. The fine arts were originated on the territory of modern Ukraine as far back as the period of primitive communal system. Formation of Kyiv Rus and the adoption of Christianity promoted the development of culture and of the fine arts in Rus. Together with architecture, the monumental painting achieved a high level of development (i.e., mosaics and frescoes of cathedrals, monasteries and churches throughout Ukraine). Icon painting became the art of broad generalization. In the 16th century, new genres of painting were originated (battle scenes, historical events, portraits and landscapes). The beginning of book printing in Ukraine led to rapid development of the art of engraving.

The works of Taras Shevchenko formed a whole epoch of art. Being a painter and engraver, he skillfully painted in water colors, sepia, etched, painted portraits, landscapes and often used his works in historical themes. His works had a great influence on many other artists.

The art of sculpture is developing in close connection with life and actual problems of our times. In 1992-1996, many new monuments were erected throughout Ukraine. Examples of such monuments are of Taras Shevchenko, Bohdan Khmelnytskyi, monuments in honor of artists and composers, poets, historical figures, victims of the Hunger in the 1930s, victims of repressive actions during the 1930-1940s and others. Presently, preparation is underway to erect an Independence Monument in Ukraine.

Ukrainian galleries have become an important factor for development of the fine arts. These galleries not only represent the achievements of the Ukrainian artists, but also create conditions for separation of "good" and "bad" works and give a chance for making the process more objective. There are many art galleries and museums throughout Ukraine.

Folk art remains the invigorating source of development of professional arts. There are approximately 9.5 thousand craftsmen working in Ukraine. In 1995, 18.5 thousand exhibitions of folk applied arts were held in the Republic.

Music

The Ukrainian people have always been known for their musical culture. In the 15-16th centuries, the original type of Ukrainian folk songs, the kobza art, and playing instruments were introduced. In time, monophonic znamenny (by "signs") chant was replaced by polyphonic partesnye (for many parts) chant.

At the Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium (from 1701, known as Academy), the music reading and writing, choral singing and instrumental music were studied. In 1738 the Hlukhiv singing school was founded. In 1863, the first Ukrainian opera, "A Cossack Beyond the Danube", was written by S. Hulak-Artemovskyi. Mykola Lysenko (1842-1912) became a founder of the Ukrainian classic music. His traditions were developed by many contemporaries, his students and followers.

In rather difficult economic conditions, which were characteristic for the sphere of musical culture during the last years, it was generally succeeded to preserve and expand its creative, material, technical and personnel basis. At present time, 43 concert organizations, 139 artistic collectives are functioning in Ukraine. During the last five years, 29 new musical collectives have been established in the system of concert organizations. Among them are the Odesa Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, the Kyiv Chamber Musical Theatre, the Model-Orchestra of National Guard of Ukraine, the state ensemble of soloists "Kyiv Kamerata", the piano quintet "Kyiv" at the House of Organ and Chamber Music, the Kyiv chamber choir "Khreschatyk" and others.

The leading positions in Ukrainian musical culture are occupied by the National Opera and Ballet Theatre, the opera theaters at Lviv, Kharkiv, Odesa, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, the musical comedy theatres in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa, and the Philharmonic Societies and musical drama theatres at all Regional Centers.

The 1990s are characterized by a great number of music festivals and competitions in Ukraine. In particular, the S. Krushelnytska Festivals of Opera Art have become a tradition at Lviv the international festivals of organ and piano music "Musical Premiers of Season" in Kyiv the international music festivals "Kharkiv Assemblies" at Kharkiv, "Oksamitovi Seasons in the Crimea" in the Crimea.

At the end of the 20th century, the most outstanding phenomenon of musical culture became the "Chervona Ruta" festival. The youth, not having their own good examples, have perceived only foreign pop music with all its achievements and deficiencies. Because of the "Chervona Ruta" festival, the situation has improved. This festival has become a sort of laboratory or school, where a national style of Ukrainian pop music with the inclusion of elements of academic musical culture is forming.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF UKRAINE
In 1991, the Ukrainian people realized their sovereign right to self-determination and, as a result of this, the new country - Ukraine appeared on the World Map. The new Constitution was approved by the Verkhovna Rada on June 28th 1996. Under the Constitution the powers of the government are divided into three branches - the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. The Constitution outlines the structure of the national government and specifies its powers and duties.Constitution of Ukraine enjoys the greatest legal power. Local self-governing is stipulated and guaranteed by Constitution.

Ukraine is the Presidential and Parliamentary Republic. Parliament - the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine is the sole legislative body. Verkhovna Rada is a unicameral assembly of 450 deputies, who are elected for a term of four years on the basis of universal, equal suffrage by the secret ballot. The Verhovna Rada`s main function is making laws. Law drafting work is performed by its Committees. The Verhovna Rada adopts the State Budget for the period from January 1 to December 31 and controls the execution of it.

The President of Ukraine is granted with the power of the head of the state. He has the authority to speak for the state and he is the guarantor of the state sovereignty, territorial integrity of Ukraine, observance of the Constitution of Ukraine, civic rights and freedoms. He is elected directly by the voters for a term of five years with no more then two full terms

The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest executive body. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is responsible to the President of Ukraine and under the control and accountable to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. It carries out domestic and foreign policy of the State, the fulfilment of the Constitution, as well as the acts of the President, develops and fulfils national programs on the economic, scientific and technological, social and cultural development of Ukraine. The Prime-Minister of Ukraine operates the Cabinet of Ministers, directs its work to the fulfillment of the Program of the Cabinet of Ministers approved by the Verkhovna Rada.

Judicial power in Ukraine belongs exclusively to the courts. It is administered by the Constitutional Court, the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine, and by courts of general jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Ukraine is the highest juridical body of general jurisdictio

ECONOMY & INDUSTRY OF UKRAINE
Ukraine has well-developed scientific and industrial base. The national economy includes such spheres as heavy machine building, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, shipbuilding, automotive industry (buses, cars and trucks), manufacturing of tractors and other agriculture machinery, diesel locomotive manufacturing, manufacturing of machine-tools, turbines and aircraft engines, production of power plants', oil extraction and chemical equipment and so on. Ukraine is also a powerful manufacturer of energy.

Machine-building. Machine-building is one of the leading sectors of industry of Ukraine with its production potential composed by 1,2 thousand industrial enterprises, 2 thirds of which have already been privatised or are at the stage of privatisation.

Aviation complex. Ukraine belongs to 8 countries of the world, which have necessary scientific-technical potential for creation and production of competitive aviation equipment. Among the main enterprises are ASTC named after Antonov, State Design Bureau "Pivdenne", Production Association "Pivdennyi Machine-Building Plant named after Makarov", Kharkiv State Aviation Production Enterprise, Kyiv State Aviation Plant "Aviant" and OJSC "Motor Sich". Passenger and transportation aircrafts, known in the world under brand name "An", rocket-carriers and space apparatus of different determination are created and serially manufactured here. It is Ukrainian rocket-carriers "Zenith" and "Tsyklon", which are recognised to be perspective among world consumers; at present they operate in the framework of international space projects "Global Star" and "Sea Launch".

Shipbuilding. The basis of the field is formed by 9 shipbuilding plants as well as enterprises of ship machine-building, scientific-research institutes and design bureaus. Availability of production, scientific research and staff potential allows to satisfy demands of customers in the construction and repairing of vessels and ships of practically all types and classes. Shipbuilding plants have mastered the production of the new types of vessels, competitive in the world market.

Iron and steel complex of Ukraine consists of 365 enterprises, including 14 metallurgical factories and plants, 7 pipe production plants, 10 plants of hardware production, 16 coke chemical plants, 17 plants on the production of fire resistant, 26 ore extracting enterprises, 3 iron alloy plants, 26 plants of non-ferrous metallurgy, 35 enterprises of second black and coloured metallurgy. According to the volumes of production metallurgical complex of Ukraine occupies the third place in Europe and the seventh place in the world. The basic technological cycles are extraction of raw materials, production of cast iron and rolled steel. The leading enterprises of the field are - OJSC "Mariupol Metallurgical Factory named after Illich" (Mariupol), State Factory "Kryvorizhstal'" (Kryvyi Rih), OJSC "Metallurgical factory "Azovstal'" (Mariupol'), OJSC "Zaporizhstal'" (Zaporizhzhya) and others.

Non-ferrous metallurgy has such subfields in its structure: mineral-raw material, mountain ore, aluminium, titanium-magnesium, rare metal and semi-conductive materials, hard alloy, lead-zinc, antimony-mercury, electrode, metal processing, silicon.

Chemical and petrochemical industry. At present in the chemical complex of Ukraine there are more than 200 enterprises 62,7% of which are Joint Stock companies. In the conditions of hard competition in such segments of market of chemical goods as nitrogen fertilizers and ammonia, enterprises in a whole preserve significant volumes of export supplies at the expense of goods of non-organic chemistry, organic synthesis, tyres, chemical fibers, etc.

Energy sector is a highly developed branch of the national economy of the country with a full cycle of designing, production, distribution and sale of the electric power and heat energy. That provides power supply to the internal consumers. The total capacity of the power stations in the country is 53.9 million kW. Among those the thermal power plants (TPP) are 36.4 million kW (or 67 per cent), the nuclear power plants (NPP) are 12.8 million kW (or 24 per cent), and hydraulic power plants (HPP) are 4.7 million kW (or 9 per cent). Distribution of the power within UES is performed by 27 Joint Stock local energy transmitting companies.

Light industry - is one of the most socially significant fields of national economy. It unites 25 subfields, that comprises almost 500 production enterprises. They export flax, cotton, silk cloths as well as cloths for tights and stockings, jersey and ready made garments, china-pottery dishes, artificial leather, etc.

Transportation complex. As indicated by the transit factor, Ukraine ranks among the leaders in Europe. The European Transportation Conference in Crete (1994) identified 10 trans-European corridors of which four cross Ukraine. Development of the Transcaucasian transport/communications project (TRACECA Project) to span Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia is underway. Ukraine has developed pipeline, railroad, and automotive transport networks. Of these, railroad is the indisputable leader, claiming 50% to 70% of long-distance carriage. Its tracks rank fourth in length worldwide (after the USA, Russia, and Canada). Truck carriage comes second. The most important highways are under reconstruction. Ukraine's gas pipelines exceed 35,000 kilometers and they are capable of pumping 290 billion cu. meters of gas annually. There are about 4,000 km of major oil-pipelines transporting 90% of Russia's oil to Europe. Construction of the Odesa-Brody oil pipeline was completed in 2001 in combination with an oil terminal in the port of Pivdennyi. The Black Sea and the Azov Sea play an important role in coastal and international traffic. The most important ports in Ukraine are Odessa, Illichivsk, Mykolayiv, Kherson, Feodosiya, and Izmayil.

NATURAL RESOURCES OF UKRAINE
The country is rich in natural resources, such as iron ore, coal, color metal, oil, gas, mineral salts, clay and potential water power.

The leading place among fuel minerals borrows occupies coal. It is extracted in Donetsk and Lvovsko-Volynsk pools.

Donetsk deposit (Donbass) is the largest coal deposit in Ukraine. It is located on the territory of Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The region occupies nearly 60 thousand square km. East areas of Donbass are situated on the territory of the Rostov area of the Russian Federation. By the coal stocks Donbass is the main deposit of the country. Conditions of a coal mining in the deposit are very complex. Coal is deposited on depth more than 1000 meters, in 330 greatest layers thickness of them ranges from 0,3 up to 1,5 m and under the big corner. This leads to the high cost price of coal.

The Lvovsko-Volynsk deposit is located on the territory of Volynsk and Lvov regions. Mining are conducted by a mine way. There are 80 layers in the deposit with theа capacity of 2,8 m. Coal is extracted up to the depth of 600 m. The deposit is developed since 1954.

Dneprovsky lignite deposit covers the territory of Zhitomir, Kiev and Cherkassk regions. Coal is deposited on small depths. Extraction is conducted by the closed and open way. Capacity of layers from 3 up to 12 m.

Stocks of petroleum and gas are connected with the thick sedimentary sedimentation in Predkarpatsky deflection, Dneprovsko-Donetsky, Prichernomorsky, in the Zakarpatye hollows and folded area of Carpathian mountains.а Petroleum and gas are extractedа in Predkarpatsky, Dneprovsko-Donetsky, Prichernomorsky-Crimean oil-and-gas-bearing areas.

Carpathian oil-and-gas-bearing area covers the territory of Predkarpatye, Carpathian mountains and Zakarpatye. The largest deposits are on the territory Ivano-Frankovsk and Lvov regions. Largest oil fields are Dolinskoye, Borislavskoye, largest gas field is Dashavskoye.

Dneprovsko-Donetsk oil-and-gas-bearing area is located on the territory of the Dnepropetrovsk, Lugansk, Poltava, Sumy, Kharkov, Chernigov regions. The area is about 115 thousand square km. There are only 140 deposits of gas and petroleum. The largest ones: Shebelinskoye, West-Krestishchenskoye, Efremovskoye (gas), Lelyakovskoye (petroleum), Hnedinzevskoye, Glinskoye-Rozbyshevskoye, Kaganovskoye, Yablonevskoye (oil-and-gas-bearing ). In the region goes on investigation of new deposits. On the territory of the Kharkov region found out new large deposits of gas.

Prichernomorsko-Crimean oil-and-gas-bearing area covers territory of the Nikolaev, Odessa, Kherson regions and northern part of Crimea. Here are elaborated 60 deposits of gas and petroleum. Some deposits is located within the limits of a shelf of the Black sea and of the bottom of the Azov sea. In the region goes on investigation of new deposits.

Ukraine is rich for ore useful minerals (iron ores, manganous, polymetallic ores, ores of nonferrous metals). Now in Ukraine about 40 deposits of iron ore are explored.

Krivorozhsky iron ore deposit (Krivbass) is situated on the territory of the Dnepropetrovsk region. The largest deposit in Ukraine. The area is about 300 square km. It is elaborated since 1881. The great industrial value have rich iron ores with the contents of iron from 46 up to 62 %. Extraction is conducted by mine and open ways. One of the largest deposits is Saksaganskoye.

Belozersky iron ore deposit is located in the Zaporozhye region. By the stocks of iron ore takes the second place after Krivorozhsky deposit. Ores are deposited deeply and extraction is made by the closed way.

Kremenchug iron ore area is located in the Poltava region. The area is about 5000 square km. The content of iron is up to 27 - 40 %. Extraction of ore is conducted since 1970 by an open way. Kerchensky iron ore deposit is situated on the Crimean peninsula. The area is about 10 thousand square. The content of iron is about 40 %. Hematite is deposited on depth of nearly 15 m, therefore its extraction is conducted by an open way. The deposit is elaborated since 1936.

Nikopolsky manganese ore deposit is the largest in the world. It is located in the Zaporozhye and Dnepropetrovsk regions. The maintenance (contents) of manganese about 30 %. Industrial stocks of manganous ore more than 2,5 billion tons. Extraction is conducted by the open and closed ways. Industrial development is conducted since 1886.

Ukraine is less rich for nonferrous metals. By the stocks of mercury ores (zinnober) our country takes the second place in the world. Its deposits are found out in Donetsk and Zakarpatye regions. The largest deposit is Nikitovskoye (Donetsk region).

Titanic ores are extracted in Zhitomir and Dnepropetrovsk regions. Nickel ores are extracted in Pobuzhsky deposit (Kirovograd region), aluminium (alumina) in Dnepropetrovsk region, polymetallic ores in Zakarpatye area. In Volynsk region are found out the stocks of copper. 15 deposits of gold in Pridneprovye, Priazovye, Donbass and Zakarpatye are open.

Uranium ores which are used on atomic power stations are deposited in Dnepropetrovsk and Kirovograd regions.

Large stocks of mineral paints (the Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkov regions) are found out. Large stocks of graphite are found in the Kirovograd region.

AGRICULTURE OF UKRAINE
Ukraine has a favorable combination of climatic conditions, land and labor resources, well-developed transport infrastructure, and close foreign markets. This accounts for the high potential of its agricultural production. The agricultural sector produces 12,8% of GDP, employing a fifth of the working population. Ukraine's arable and farming areas comprise 42 million square km, the largest in Europe after Russia. Planted crops account for 54.5% of total agricultural output. Among the dominant crops are wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflowers, legumes, tobacco, vegetables, and fruits. Ukraine ranks fifth in grain crops in the world. In 2001 Ukraine harvested almost 40 mln. tons of grain. Livestock farming includes cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, etc. Great progress has been made in poultry farming, fisheries, and apiculture. In agriculture restructuring began with the first years of independence.

Following President Leonid Kuchma's 1999 reelection, the drastic reforms came to the village: the land owned by collective farms is being divided among the peasants, who can not freely manage their lots; conditions are being provided for farmers to expand their farms, and agricultural enterprises are being arranged on a voluntary basis in a fashion chosen by the peasants themselves. 13,300 new agricultural units have been formed, including farms (46%), cooperatives (25%), private and leased businesses (21%).

The infrastructure of the agricultural market is introduced most resolutely and consistently on the basis of the wholesale and exchange trade of agricultural produce. An alternatively owned network of processing and procurement businesses is being established. Ukraine is currently determined to re-establish its age old reputation as the breadbasket of Europe.

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